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Responses Assessment

The Response Options Working Group assessed the effectiveness of various types of response options, both historical and current, examining the strengths and weaknesses of various response options that have been used to manage ecosystem services. Their report also identifies some promising opportunities for improving human well-being while conserving ecosystems.

The Responses Working Group determined that an effective set of responses to ensure the sustainable management of ecosystems requires substantial changes in institutions and governance, economic policies and incentives, social and behavior factors, technology, and knowledge. Prompt and effective actions in these areas, as described in the report, could substantially lessen the severity of ecosystem problems in the next several decades.

Assessment report outline

Contents, Foreword, Preface [pdf, 828 KB]

01. MA Conceptual Framework [pdf, 425 KB]

02. Typology of Responses [pdf, 394 KB]

03. Assessing Responses [pdf, 346 KB]

04. Recognizing Uncertainties in Evaluating Responses [pdf, 292 KB]

05. Biodiversity [pdf, 703 KB]

06. Food and Cultivated Ecosystems [pdf, 911 KB]

07. Water [pdf, 723 KB]

08. Wood, Fuel-wood and Non Wood Forest Products [pdf, 420 KB]

09. Nutrient Management [pdf, 487 KB]

10. Waste Management, Processing and Detoxification [pdf, 585 KB]

11. Flood and Storm Control [pdf, 603 KB]

12. Ecosystems and Vector Borne Disease Control [pdf, 433 KB]

13. Responses to Climate Change [pdf, 453 KB]

14. Cultural Services [pdf, 289 KB]

15. Integrated Responses [pdf, 1015 KB]

16. Consequences and Options for Human Health [pdf, 625 KB]

17. Consequences of Responses for Poverty Reduction, Ecosystem Services and Human Well-being [pdf, 819 KB]

18. Choosing Responses [pdf, 291 KB]

19. Implications for Achieving the MDGs [pdf, 526 KB]

Appendices [pdf, 1054 KB]

Responses Working Group


  • Kanchan Chopra, Institute of Economic Growth, India
  • Rik Leemans, Wageningen University, The Netherlands

Technical Support

  • Dr. Pushpam Kumar
    Institute of Economic Growth
    Delhi, India
  • Henk Simons
    National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM)
    The Netherlands
  • Meenakshi Rathore
    Institute of Economic Growth
    Delhi, India
© 2005 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment